Typological Grid – Index Eurasia

Name
Alignment
Name Description
Compare PROG-PAST What is the marking relation between subject and object in present progressive and simple past?
Noun: Present Progressive In present progressive: how is the marking of subject and object of nouns realized?
Noun: Simple Past In simple past: how is the marking of subject and object of nouns realized?
Pronoun: Present Progressive In present progressive: how is the marking of subject and object of pronouns realized?
Pronoun: Simple Past In present progressive: how is the marking of subject and object of pronouns realized?
Reflexive pronoun in transitive clause What is the alignment of reflexive pronouns?
Verb: Present Progressive In present progressive, how is alignment realized on the verb?
Verb: Simple Past In simple past, how is alignment realized on the verb?
Interrogatives

The domain of question formation in languages, including polar interrogatives and WH constructions.

Name Description
Embedded: Compare How does the structure of an embedded polar interrogative compare to that of of matrix polar interrogatives and declarative subordinate clauses?
Embedded: Interrogative subordinator Is there a subordinator for introducing embedded polar interrogatives?
Embedded: Particle What is the position of the question particle in a polar interrogative embedded clause?
Embedded: Verb morphology interaction How does polar interrogativity in an embedded clause interact with the morphology of the verb?
Embedded: Word order Do embedded polar interrogatives have a special word order in relation to declaratives?
Matrix: Particle What is the position of the question particle in a polar interrogative matrix clause?
Matrix: Verb morphology interaction How does polar interrogativity in a matrix clause interact with the morphology of the verb?
Matrix: Word order Do matrix polar interrogatives have a special word order in relation to declaratives?
WH-element What is the position of the WH-question word?
Nominal morphology
Name Description
Case marking On which elements of the NP is the case marking obligatory?
Definiteness marking How is definiteness marking realized in the language?
Gender / noun class How is gender / noun class realized in the language?
Gender agreement How is gender agreement realized in the language?
Nominal case What is the realization of case at nouns (nominal heads)?
Preposition agreement How is preposition agreement realized in the language?
Pronominal case What is the realization of case at pronouns (pronominal heads)? Mainly 1st and 2nd person pronouns, ignoring 3rd person pronouns (which often come from demonstratives).
Tense
Name Description
Continous present How is present progressive realized in the language?
Future How is future realized in the language?
Verbal morphology
Name Description
Allocutive agreement Does the verb agree with the receiver (the person one is speaking to) without the speaker being an argument in the sentence (allocutive agreement, probably no for all languages but Basque!)
Present progressive, A In present progressive: how is verbal agreement realized with respect to the agent?
Present progressive, DAT In present progressive, how is verbal agreement organized with respect to the indirect object of ditransitive verbs?
Present progressive, O In present progressive, how is verbal agreement organized with respect to the object?
Simple PAST, A In simple past, how is verbal agreement realized with respect to the agent?
Simple PAST, DAT In simple past, how is verbal agreement realized with respect to the indirect object of ditransitive verbs?
Simple PAST, O In simple past, how is verbal agreement realized with respect to the object?
Word order
Name Description
Adpositions Do adpositions normally occur before or after the noun?
Clitic pronouns finite verb Does the clitic object pronoun normally occur before or after a finite verb? E.g.: Je les fais. (OV) If a language does not have clitic object pronouns, it would be 0 in both OV and VO.
Clitic pronouns infinitive Does the clitic object pronoun normally occur before or after an infinitive? E.g.: Je veux les faire. (OV) If a language does not have clitic object pronouns, it would be 0 in both OV and VO.
Clitic pronouns participle Does the clitic object pronoun normally occur before or after a participle? E.g.: En les faisant... (OV) If a language does not have clitic object pronouns, it would be 0 in both OV and VO.
Infinitive Does the object normally occur before or after an infinitive? E.g.: to make pancakes (VO) Pfannkuchen machen (OV)
Main clause What is the canonical (neutral) word order in a main clause?
Noun-adjective Do adjectives normally occur before or after the noun?
Noun-possessor Do possessors normally occur before or after the noun?
Noun-relative clause Do relative clauses normally occur before or after the noun?
Participle Does the object normally occur before or after a participle? E.g.: making pancakes (VO) Pfannkuchen machend (OV)
Subordinate clause What is the canonical (neutral) word order in a subordinate clause?
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