Lexeme – Index

Language Form Meaning Grammar Note
Middle English hærfest, herfest, hervest

autumn; harvest season; (later): the harvest (reaping and gathering in); the ripened crop

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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *nem - 'take'

Tch. ñemek < PIE. *nēm-ok-om (nt.), a derivative of *nem - 'take' Details
Proto-Balto-Slavic *es-eni-

Further etymology uncertain; RD discusses the possibility that the root is PIE *h₁es v. 'to be'. Details
Stub Culture Indo-European autumn-3

Cat. tardor f. 'autumn' < tardaó < Lat. tardatiōne 'arriving late'
DCVB
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Stub Culture Indo-European autumn-1

Da. efterår n. 'autumn' / Du. najaar n. 'autumn' / MLG. vorjār 'spring'
DDO
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Stub Culture Indo-European autumn-4

Alb. vjeshtë f. 'autumn' < vjel v. 'to pluck fruit, to vintage' < PAlb. *wela. "Related to Gr. eilu v. 'to shut in, to press', Lith. su-valýti v. 'to harvest, to reap'." (AED)
Orel
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Old Saxon gerdia

tail; twig; rod

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Old High German gerta

tail; twig; rod

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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *(s)kop- 'strike, smite, hew'

PSl. *kopьje n. 'spear, lance' < *kopàti v. 'to dig' < BSl. *kop- < PIE. *(s)kop-
Rick Derksen. "kopьje" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2015. Brill Online. February 22, 2015. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl.ludwig.lub.lu.se/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=19117 >
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *spoud-ie-

PGm. *speuta- n. ‘spear’ < proto-form. *speud-o- / ; Lith. spáusti (spáužiu) v. 'to press' < proto-form. *spoud-ie-. "If the original meaning of *speuta- was something driven into something, little objection can be found to the connection with Gr. σπεύδω and Lith. spáusti."
Guus Kroonen. "speuta-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2015. Brill Online. February 21, 2015. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl…
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *ǵhoyso- 'spear'

PCelt. *gayso- ’spear’ < PIE. *ǵhoyso- 'spear' (IEW: 410) / PGm. *gaiza- m. ‘spear, tip’ < proto-form. *ghois-ó- / ON geirr m. 'id.', Nw. geir m. 'leister, eel spear; small tip; ness, headland; small mackerel', OE gār m. 'id.', OFri. gēr-, OS gēr m. 'id.', MDu. geer m. 'id.', OHG gēr m. 'id.', MHG gēr m. 'id.' / OIr. gae m., MW gwaew m./f. 'spear' < *ghaiso-. / "A Germanic-Celtic isogloss; there is some evidence that the Celtic word was borrowed from Germanic" (GK). ”Since the Celtic words f… Details
Stub Culture Indo-European spear-2

Lat. hasta f. ‘spear, staff’ < PItal. *χastā-. "Probably not of Indo-European origin… Latin -st-, MIr. -t and PGm. *zd point to a cluster *-sT- in this loanword." (MDV).
Michiel de Vaan. "hasta" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2015. Brill Online. February 22, 2015. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl.ludwig.lub.lu.se/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=13389 >
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Middle English gore, gare

spear

Long obsolete, though recorded in Somerset in 1888: "Gore, a long rod tipped with a small spear for driving oxen. Always so called." (OED). Details
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *ǵhoyso- 'spear'

PCelt. *gayso- ’spear’ < PIE. *ǵhoyso- 'spear' (IEW: 410) / PGm. *gaiza- m. ‘spear, tip’ < proto-form. *ghois-ó- / ON geirr m. 'id.', Nw. geir m. 'leister, eel spear; small tip; ness, headland; small mackerel', OE gār m. 'id.', OFri. gēr-, OS gēr m. 'id.', MDu. geer m. 'id.', OHG gēr m. 'id.', MHG gēr m. 'id.' / OIr. gae m., MW gwaew m./f. 'spear' < *ghaiso-. / A Germanic-Celtic isogloss; there is some evidence that the Celtic word was borrowed from Germanic. / ”Since the Celtic words for 'sp… Details
Occitan lansa

lance, spear

Meaning automatically transferred. Source not checked.
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Middle English launce, lence, lance

spear, lance

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Stub Culture Indo-European knife-2

Baltic peilis. According to CDB, "probably with" PSl. *pila 'file' <- OHG. fīla, fīhala 'file' (REW).
CDB
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *ḱs-tro- 'knife'

Alb. thadër f. 'double-sided axe' < PAlb. *tsestrā, "identical with Skt. śastrá n. 'instrument for cutting' < śas- v. 'to cut' < PIE. *ḱs-tro- 'knife' (according to Orel).
AED, Skt. śastrá n. 'instrument for cutting' < śas- v. 'to cut' (according to CDB). Lat. castrāre v. ‘to castrate; to thin out (plants)’ < PItal. *kastro- < PIE. *ḱs-tro- 'knife'
CDB
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Stub Culture Indo-European knife-3

Gr. μάχαιρα f. ‘large knife, butchery knife; short sword, dagger’: Pre-Greek, perhaps Semitic (RB)
Robert Beekes (with the assistance of Lucien van Beek). "μάχαιρα" in: Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. October 6, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=7377 >
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Proto-Indo-Aryan *śas-

to slaughter, cut down

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