Lexeme – Index

Language Form Meaning Grammar Note
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *h₂erǵ- 'brilliant white'

Gr. ἄργυρος m. ‘silver’ < IE *h₂erǵ- 'brilliant white' / ἄργυρος derives from a u -stem also seen in ἄργυφος and in Skt. árju-na- 'white, bright', ToB ārkʷi 'white', Lat. arguō v. 'to make clear', Hitt. arkuu̯ae-zi v. 'to make a plea', etc. Other languages have a thematicized nt- stem in the word for 'silver': Lat. argentum, OIr. argat, Av. ərəzata-, Skt. rajatá- [n.], all < *h₂rǵ-nt-o-. / ἀργύριον 'silver coin, money'
Robert Beekes (with the assistance of Lucien van Beek). "ἄργυρος" in: Etymo…
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIr. *anćuwan-

Tch. 'iron' words: borrowings from Iranian (DTB)
DTB
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Stub Culture Indo-European iron-1

Lat. ferrum n. ‘iron, steel’: Borrowed from an unknown source, possibly from a Semitic language, cf. Phoenician barzel, Syriac parzlā 'iron'. These are also purported sources for OE. bræs ‘bronze; generic alloy of copper’.
Michiel de Vaan. "ferrum" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. November 28, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=1…
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Proto-Celtic *īsarno-, *isarno-

iron

Further etymology uncertain. Proposed PIE etymologies include PIE *h₁ēsh₂r-no- > PCelt. *īsarno- 'bloody' > 'red' 'iron', cf. Hitt. eshar 'blood'; or PIE *(H)ish₂ro- 'strong, holy, having supernatural powers', cf. Gr. hierós, Skt. iṣirá- (RM). Details
Stub Culture Indo-European iron-3

Gr. σίδηροσ m. 'iron, steel'. No etymology: "probably a loanword, but source unknown" (CDB). Details
Stub Culture Indo-European iron-2

PSl. *želě̀zo n. ‘iron’ < BSl. *geleź-; *gelēź-. Etymology unknown. KK connects this Balto-Slavic term with Gr. χαλκός m. 'ore; copper, bronze'. RB suggests that the Baltic and Greek items may have been borrowed independently from a hypothetical "Eastern source".
Rick Derksen. "želě̀zo" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. November 28, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.…
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Stub Culture Indo-European iron-4

Alb. hekur m. 'iron'. Etymology unclear, possibly <- Gr. άγκυρα f. 'anchor', cf. Hekur i anijes 'anchor', lit. 'iron of the ship' (AED)
AED
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Proto-Balto-Slavic *geleź-, *gelēź-

Further etymology unknown. KK connects this Balto-Slavic term with Gr. χαλκός m. 'ore; copper, bronze'. RB suggests that the Baltic and Greek items may have been borrowed independently from an unknown Eastern source. Details
Stub Culture Indo-European copper-7

OE. bræs 'generic bronze'. No etymology: "Of unknown origin: not found elsewhere... has been compared with Old Swedish brasa fire, brasa to flame, Danish brase to roast; but no connection has been traced" (OED). But MA suggests a possible Semitic loan, cf. Phoenician barzel, Syriac parzlā 'iron' (also possible source of Lat. ferrum 'iron'). Note Fris. bres 'copper' (MA) and MLG bras-penniuk 'large silver coin from Flanders' (LUB). Alloy of copper and zinc (brass in the modern sense of the word… Details
Middle Low German bras-penniuk

silver coin

"grosse flandrische Silbermünze" (Lübben).
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Stub Culture Indo-European PCelt. *isarno-, *īsarno- ‘iron’

1. PCelt. *isarno-, *īsarno- ‘iron’. Proposed PIE etymologies include PIE *h₁ēsh₂r-no- > PCelt. *īsarno- 'bloody' > 'red' 'iron', cf. Hitt. eshar 'blood' and PIE *(H)ish₂ro- 'strong, holy, having supernatural powers' (Gr. hierós, Skt. iṣirá-). (RM). 2. PGm. *īsarna-, *īzarna- n. ‘iron’ <- PCelt. *īsarno- 'iron'. "A PGm. loanword from PCelt. *īsarno- 'iron', cf. OIr. íarn 'id.' It is uncertain whether *īsarno- belongs to the family of *aiza- 'ore' < *h₂ei-es-" (GK).
Ranko Matasović. "isarno- / …
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Stub Culture Indo-European copper-8

BTch. pilke* 'copper' < pälk- 'burn'
DTB
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Stub Culture Indo-European copper-6

Baltic *var- 'copper', possible Finno-Ugric loanword.
CDB
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Stub Culture Indo-European copper-5

CDB Details
Stub Culture Indo-European copper-4

PSl. *mě̀dь f. ‘copper’. No further eymology.
Rick Derksen. "mě̀dь" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. November 25, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl.ludwig.lub.lu.se/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=19401 >
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *HoHmo- 'raw'

PCelt. *omiyo- ‘copper, bronze’ < PIE. *HoHmo- 'raw'. "We may assume that the meaning 'copper' is earlier... A derivation of *omiyo- from *omo- 'raw' appears formally possible, but the semantic connection is weak. Was 'copper' conceived of as 'raw metal' in contrast to iron, which is melted at much higher temperatures?" (RM).
Ranko Matasović. "omiyo-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Onl…
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *h₂éi-es- 'bronze'

1. PGm. *aiza- n. ‘ore, brass’ < PIE. *h₂éi-es-. "The original PIE s-stem *h₂éi-os, *h₂(e)i-és-os may have been derived from the root *h₂ei- v. 'to burn', cf. *aida- and *aisōn-. Also cf. OE ǣren, OHG ērīn, G ehern adj. 'iron, brazen' < *aizīna-. 2. Lat. aes, aeris n. ‘copper, bronze; money’ < PItal. *ajos, *ajes- 'bronze' < PIE. *h₂ei-os, *h₂ei-es- 'bronze'
Michiel de Vaan. "aes" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Onlin…
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Middle English ær, ore, wore

ore

Merging of OE ōra 'unwrought metal, ore' and OE ār 'brass, bronze, copper' (OED). Details
Stub Culture Indo-European harvest-1

PSl. *žę̀tva f. ‘harvest’ < *žę̀ti v. ‘reap, mow, harvest’ < BSl. *genʔ-/*ginʔ-. Etymology uncertain: *žęti either goes back to the root *gʷyeh₃ ‘live’; or (RD’s suggestion) to Baltic forms usually assigned to the root *gʷhen- 'strike', although this would be semantically odd. (RD).
Rick Derksen. "žę̀tva" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. November 4, 2014. < http:/…
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Czech žatva

harvest, mowing

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