Lexeme – Index

Language Form Meaning Grammar Note
Classical Greek opʰnísὀφνίς

ploughshare, plough

Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *uogʷhni- 'coulter, ploughshare'

1. PGm. *wagnisan- m. ‘ploughshare’ < proto-form. *uogʷh-ni- / GSwi. wäge(n)se m. 'id.' / Gr. ὀφνίς 'plowshare', OPru. wagnis 'coulter' < * uogʷh-ni-; Lat. vōmer m. 'id.' < * uogʷh-mi- (with assimilation of n to m?). / A European word. Gr. ὀφνίς, OPru. wagnis and probably also Lat. vōmer point to * uogʷh-ni-, and it is possible that the Germanic form is an extension of it. The exact suffixation is difficult to recover. OHG waganso is usually assumed to point to a proto-form. * wagansan-, but t… Details
Proto-Indo-European *ǵhiōm-, *ǵhi-m-ós


Avestan ziiā̊-


Young Avestan. Details
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *ues-r-, *ues-n- 'spring'

1. Gr. ἔαρ n. ‘spring’ < PIE. *ues-r- 'spring'. 2. Arm. garun ‘spring’ < PIE. *ues-r̥, *ues-n-
Robert Beekes (with the assistance of Lucien van Beek). "ἔαρ 2" in: Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. October 31, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=4986 >, PGm. *wasra-, *wazra- n. ‘spring’ < IE *uos-r/n- (GK). "An old heteroclitic noun, probably to be reconstructed as P…
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *skel- v. 'to cut'

AED Details
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *skep-

AED Details
Stub Culture Indo-European furrow-3

PSl. *borzdà f. ‘furrow’. "The reconstruction *bhrs-d(h)-, which would enable a connection with Skt. bhr̥ṣṭí- f. 'point, top, spike, tooth' (if not ṣ < *ś), cannot account for the Baltic forms".(RD).
Stub Culture Indo-European furrow-2

OPrus. redo 'furrow'
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *h₂oǵ-mo- 'trajectory'

Gr. ὄγμος m. ‘furrow, swath, line of scythed grass or grain’, also of the course of the moon and the sun, etc., ‘strip of land, which is (or ought to be) scythed down or cultivated in another way’, also as a field-measure (Il., pap. imperial period) < IE *h₂oǵ-mo- 'trajectory' (RB) "A term of agriculture. As a verbal noun to ἄγω (ὄγμον ἄγειν Theoc. 10, 2), ὄγμος may be identical in origin with Skt. ájma- [m.] 'trajectory, draught'. It is hard to imagine parallel innovations, since the suffix -… Details
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *ǵh(e)i-m- 'winter'

Gr. χεῖμα n. ‘winter, winter weather, storm’ < IE *ǵh(e)i-m- 'winter', IE *ǵhei (CDB), or *ǵheim-n-o- (thematic (RB)., PCelt. *gyemo- ‘winter’ < PIE. *ǵhyem- 'winter' (IEW: 425f.). IE cognates include Gr. kheímōn, Lat. hiems, OCS. zima, Arm. jiwn 'snow', Alb. dimër. The reconstruction of PCelt. *gyemo- is based on the assumption (Schrijver) that *gye- > *gya- in British and Gaulish. However, cf. Fr. givre, Pr. gibre, giure, Cat. gebre 'hoarfrost', which may be from Gaul. *gewro- < *gem(e)ro- … Details
Stub Culture Indo-European PGm. *wintru-

PGm. *wintru- m. ‘winter; year’. Further etymology uncertain. “The traditional derivation from a nasalized variant of the root *wed- v. 'to be wet' (see *wēta-) is unconvincing: it is based on the wrong analysis of Lat. unda f. 'wave' as continuing *u-n-d-eh₂- rather than correct *ud-neh₂- (with Thurneysen's law). The connection with OIr. find adj. 'white' < *windo- is semantically weak” (GK).
Guus Kroonen. "wintru-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Indo-European Etymological Dict…
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *dlonh₁gh-o- 'long'

OE lencten, MDu. lentin , OHG lengizin, lenzin and shorter synonyms ME, MLG & MDu. lente; OHG langiz, langaz, lenzo weak; and reflexes. Perhaps compound or derivation < PGm. *langa- adj. ‘long’ < IE *dlonh₁gh-o-, identical to Lat. longus adj. 'long': "The shorter form (? Old Germanic type *laŋgito-, *laŋgiton-) seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long adj., and may possibly have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring. It is doubtful whether the ending o… Details
Stub Culture Indo-European spring-1

G. frühling
Stub Culture Indo-European spring-2

MoGr. άνοιξη
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *spré-n-gh-e-

PGm. *springan-, * sprinkan- v. ‘to break out, leap’ < PIE. *spré-n-gh-e- (GK) / ON springa s.v. 'to spring; to spurt out; to burst, break', Icel. springa, sprinka s.v. 'id.', Far. springa s.v. 'to leap, jump; to burst, explode', Elfd. springga s.v. 'to grow', OE springan, sprincan wv. 'to spring, burst out; to grow', E to spring, OFri. springa s.v. 'to spring; to jump, leap, run', OS springan s.v. 'id.', Du. springen s.v. 'id.', OHG springan s.v. 'to jump, gush, flow', G springen s.v. 'id.' / … Details
German Langis


Dialectal. Details
Latin primo vere

beginning of the spring

< primus 'first' & vēr n. ‘spring’, Compound: primus 'first' & vēr n. ‘spring’. Details
Stub Culture Indo-European spring-3

Fr. printemps m. 'spring' < OFr. printans 'season; (by extension) temperature and vegetation of this season; (by metaphor) youth; year' < OFr. prins & temps < Lat. primus tempus: "Replaced OFr. primever 'spring' in the 16th century" (TLF).
Stub Culture Indo-European spring-4

South Slavic pròljeće, prólet 'spring', a compound, literally 'pre-summer' < PSl. *lě̀to n. ‘summer’ < PIE. *leh₁-tóm

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