Lexeme – Index

Language Form Meaning Grammar Note
Croatian jèmeš, jèmlješ

plough

Dialectal Details
Stub Culture Indo-European plough (noun)-4

PSl. *emešь, *emežь m. ‘ploughshare, plough’ (RD) "In order to explain the variation between initial l- and initial j-/0- Popowska-Taborska (1984) has proposed a change l'- > j- . This seems unlikely" (RD)
Rick Derksen. "emešь" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. June 17, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=18779 >
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Stub Culture Indo-European saw-1

1. PSl. *pila 'saw, file' <- OHG. fīla, fīhala 'file' (according to Vasmer). 2. Germanic words meaning 'file'. There is no agreed proto-form. Suggestions include PGm. *finhl- (SEO) *þinhlo- (AEW), PGm. *fihlâ < the Aryan pink < *peik ‘to scratch, mark’ (OED). "The Old Church Slavonic (also Russian, Czech, etc.) pila 'file, saw', Lithuanian pela, pėlyczià 'file', have a remarkable similarity of sound to the Germanic word, but etymological affinity cannot be affirmed" (OED).
OED, AEW, SEO, CDB
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Middle English sawe, sagh

saw

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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *bhedh- v. 'to dig'

Tch. A pate 'cultivation, plowing,' pāt- v. 'to plow.' From the PIE *bhedh- 'dig'
DTB
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Tocharian A pane

cultivation, plowing; ploughman, husband

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Proto-Indo-European *ḱākhā-

forked, having branches

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Ossetian (Iron) sagoj

hay-fork

Also sag 'deer'. Details
Stub Culture Indo-European spade-8

SCr. ašov ''spade' <- Hung. ásó 'spade, shovel' < Hung. as 'dig, mine'
CDB
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Stub Culture Indo-European spade-7

Lat. marra 'spade, hoe' <- Ass. marru 'spade' (WH)
WH
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Stub Culture Indo-European spade-6

Lat. ascĭa f. 'spade, adze, tool for digging the earth or for cutting stone' (DH), 'axe, trowel' (MDV). “Since a sequence *ks is usually retained in intervocalic position in Latin (cf. axis, texō, auxilium, etc.), ascia cannot go back directly to a PIE. form in *-ks-. Although it is similar in form and meaning to Gr. ἀξῑ́νη [f.], Go. aqizi, OHG. acchus 'axe', these forms cannot be reduced to one PIE. preform. Hence, it is possible that we are dealing with a loanword in *aks- which underwent met… Details
Stub Culture Indo-European spade-9

Ru. zastup 'spade' < zastupit' v. 'tread on'
CDB
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Stub Culture Indo-European spade-10

Skt. khanitra- 'spade' < khan- v. 'dig'
CDB
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Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *pet-, petH-

Baltic 'shovel/shoulder' words
IEW
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Stub Culture Indo-European plough (noun)-1

DOC Details
Middle English arder

ploughing, the state of being ploughed up; land ploughed up and left fallow, fallow land

Further etymology: probably <- Latin aratrum ; "compare also Gaelic arad 'plough', and ardar 'plough', ardur 'ploughman', in West Cornwall Gloss. Compare ardagh” (OED 1885) Details
Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *solk-o- 'furrow'

1. PGm. *sulha- f. ‘plough’ < proto-form. *slk- (GK). 2. Lat. sulcus 'furrow' < ???? "An old root noun to the PIE root *selk-" (GK). /Lat. sulcāre v. 'to plough (poetic, according to CDB)' < sulcus m. ‘furrow’ < PItal. *solko- < PIE. *solk-o- 'furrow' / Note also ToA sälkā-, ToB sälk- v. 'to pull out'. // Gr. ἕλκω v. 'to draw, drag', ὁλκός [adj., m.] 'attractive, trailing; hauling-engine for ships; furrow', Alb. helq, heq v. 'to draw' (< *solkeye/o-), OE sulh [f.] 'plough' < * sḷk-, To… Details
Middle English suluh, solow

plough

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Classical Greek holkósὁλκός

attractive, trailing; hauling-engine for ships; furrow

The meaning of "furrow" is secondary
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Stub Culture Indo-European plough (noun)-2

Arm. joɫ o-stem ‘log, bar; pole’ (HKM)
Hrach K. Martirosyan. "joɫ" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. June 17, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=621 >
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