Lexeme – Index

Focus Area Language (family) Form Meaning Grammar Note
Eurasia Middle English rocke

large mass of stone; cliff, crag, or other such natural feature

The barely-attested OE rocc does not survive in Middle English. Instead, according to OED, ME rocke is (re-)borrowed from multiple sources,including: AN rokke, OFr. roke, MFr. roque, rocque (c1100); also AN, OFr., MFr. & Fr. roche (end of the 10th cent.), feminine noun, and MFr. & Fr. roc (c1370), masculine noun, probably showing influence from Old Occitan (OED). Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-6

AED Details
Eurasia Proto-Celtic *īsarno-, *isarno-

iron

Further etymology uncertain. Proposed PIE etymologies include PIE *h₁ēsh₂r-no- > PCelt. *īsarno- 'bloody' > 'red' 'iron', cf. Hitt. eshar 'blood'; or PIE *(H)ish₂ro- 'strong, holy, having supernatural powers', cf. Gr. hierós, Skt. iṣirá- (RM). Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-3

Lat. lapis m. ‘stone, pebble’ < PItal. *laped-, *leped-. Further etymology uncertain: probably a Mediterranean loanword (MDV). Also U. vapeře 'stone seat'. Uncertain: SPic. vepetí, ṿepetín, vepeten, iepeten, ṿepetín 'monument?' < *-eto-. /Gr. λέπας [n.] 'bare rock, mountain', λεπάς, -άδος [f.] 'limpet', λεπάδες 'molluscs which stick to rocks' (Hsch.).
Michiel de Vaan. "lapis" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edi…
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Eurasia Umbrian vapeře, vapefem, uapefe, uapersus, uapersusto

stone seat

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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-5

PCelt. *glendos- ‘valley, shore’ < PIE. *glend- 'shore'. “Clearly limited to Celtic and Germanic, this word could have been borrowed from some non-IE language of NW Europe.” (RM) // OIr. glend [s n] (DIL glenn) MW glynn (GPC glyn) [m] 'glen, valley' MBret. glann 'shore' Co. glan // MLG klint, 'shore' ON klettr 'rock'
"glendos-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, edited by: Ranko Matasovi?, Ph.D. (1995). Consulted online on 05/10/2017 <http://dictionaries.brillonline.com.ludwig.lub.lu.…
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-4

Lat. saxum n. ‘rock, boulder’ < PItal. *saks-o-: No certain etymology. Possibly cognate with Gm. words for 'knife': OIc. sax, OHG sahs 'knife' (MDV).
Michiel de Vaan. "saxum" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2015. Brill Online. February 9, 2015. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=14098 >
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-2

Gr. πέτρα f. 'stone (material), rock'
CDB
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *steb(h)- 'post, pole, (tree) trunk; to support, to hold, to pound, to tread'

OPrus. stabis 'rock, stone' Details
Eurasia Proto-Balto-Slavic *steb-, *stab-

Details
Eurasia Old Prussian stabni

oven

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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-9

PCelt. *klukā ‘stone, rock’. Probably borrowed from some non-IE language (RM).
Ranko Matasović. "klukā" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2015. Brill Online. February 9, 2015. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=16690 >
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Eurasia Proto-Celtic *klukā

stone, rock

Further etymology: probably borrowed from some non-IE language (RM). Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *stoiH-no- 'stone'

PIE. *stoiH-no- : "a no-stem created to the PIE root * steih₂- v. 'to stiffen', cf. Skt. styā́yate v. 'to coagulate' < * sth₂-i-oi-e, which seems to be derived from an i-present to * steh₂- v. 'to stand'." (GK) 1) PGm. *staina- m. ‘stone’ < PIE. *stoiH-no- 2) PSl. *stěna f. 'stone' < PIE. *stoih₂-neh₂- 'stone'
Guus Kroonen. "staina-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2015. Brill Online. February …
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Eurasia Middle English stæn, stoon, stonne, stone

stone

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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *leh₁- 'stone'

PCelt. *līwank- ‘stone, pillar’ < PIE. *leh₁- 'stone' / It. lava 'lava', Fr. dial. lave, Pr. lavo, lauvo 'flat stone' may be from Gaul. *lawā < *lh₁w-. Gallo-Lat. lausiae 'pebbles in a stone-quarry' (cf. Fr. lause, lauze 'pierre plate utilisée comme dalle') may be from an old s-stem *laws- < *lh₁us-, cf. also Fr. losange 'lozenge' and the toponym Lausanne, which may be from *laws-on- < *lh₁u-s-on-, or *lh₁us-h₃en-, with the possessive suffix *-h₃en-. If the etymology is correct, we should prob… Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PCelt. *magino- ‘stone, place’

PCelt. *magino- ‘stone, place’. The attribution in IEW (709) to the root *meǵh₂- 'great' is possible, cf. Skt. mahī́- 'earth' (< *'the great one') and PCelt. *magos 'field', which might also be related. In this connection, it is interesting to note that W maen specifally means a stone 'having some speciality or a particular use', according to GPC. The OIr. form in -ā is a collective built from *magino-, like Lat. loca from locus.
Ranko Matasović. "magino-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-…
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European stone-10

PGm. *hargu- m. ‘sacrificial mound?’ < proto-form. *kark-ú-. Note also Finnish karkko, karkku 'pile, stone wall, cliff'. OW creic, W craig f. 'rock' < * krakyā-; Vann. krah 'hillock' < * krakkā-; less certain: OIr. carrac f. 'rock', OW carrecc, W carreg f. 'stone, rock' < * krs-Vk-ā-(?) and OIr. carn n. 'heap of stones', W carn m./f. 'id.' < * krn-(?). // // Etymology: “Outside Germanic, there are some similar formations in Celtic... but none of these forms can be reconciled with the Germanic… Details

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