Lexeme – Index

Focus Area Language (family) Form Meaning Grammar Note
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European meat-2

PGm. *flaiska-,*fleiski- < PIE. *pleiH-sk- [?] (DB). PIE origin is "doubtful for several reasons, viz. the Baltic parallel (with problematic *-ḱ- ~ *-sk-), the abundant Gmc. formations, which remain partly unclear, and the unclear relationship to Baltic-Gmc. *plēḱ-, *pləḱ- (and *pl(e)H-s-... I therefore suspect a North-European substratum word" (DB).
Dirk Boutkan and Sjoerd Michiel Siebinga. "flask" in: Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited …
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Eurasia English wheat

wheat

Cereal plant of the genus Triticum
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *der-ueh₂-

PGm. *terwōn- f. 'tare(s)' < PIE. *der-ueh₂- (GK). Also Lith. dirvà f. 'field' < *dr-ueh₂- and Skt. dū́rvā- 'dūrvā grass, Panicum dactylon'. "The Germanic and Sanskrit forms can formally be unified into a paradigm *dér-uh₂, gen. *dr-uéh₂-s " (GK). OED considers the etymology of Eng. tare to be 'obscure', and questions the connection with Du. tarwe 'wheat' on semantic grounds: "no satisfactory explanation has been offered of the transference of sense" (OED 1910). Says GK: "The semantic variati… Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *neyk- v. 'to winnow'

Celtic words for wheat are "compounds with final member OIr. -necht, W. -nith, Br. -niz" (CDB): these elements are derivations from the verb v. 'to winnow': W. nithio v. 'to winnow', Br. niza v. 'to winnow' < PCelt. *nixt-o- v. 'to winnow' < PIE. *neyk- v. 'to winnow' (IEW: 761) (RB).
CDB
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Eurasia Sanskrit dū́rvā-

grass, Panicum dactylon; panic grass

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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *terh₁- v. 'to rub'

tritĭcum 'wheat' < terere v. 'to rub, to thresh' < PItal. *tera-, trei-, terasro- 'drill' < PIE. *terh₁-, *trh₁-, *treh₁-i- v. 'to rub'
"terō" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin, edited by: Michiel de Vaan (Ph.D. 2002). Consulted online on 03/10/2017 <http://dictionaries.brillonline.com.ludwig.lub.lu.se/search#dictionary=latin&id=la1659> First published online: October 2010, Alb. tërshërë, tërshanë f. 'oats' <- Rom. *trimēnsānum < Lat. trimēnse trīticum 'three-months cereal'. Compare OItal. t…
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Eurasia Middle English tare

corn pest; wild or cultivated vetch, tare; vetch seed

Also: tares 'weeds growing in grain fields, darnel'.
"A word of obscure origin and history", according to the OED, which disputes the connection with MDu. tarwe 'wheat' on semantic grounds". Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *bhruHǵ- v. 'to use'

Lat. frūmentum 'cereal, grain' < Lat. fruor v. ‘to enjoy (the produce of)’ < PItal. *frūg- < PIE. *bhruHg-ie/o- v. 'to use'. PGm. *brūkjanaN v. 'to use, to practice' < PIE. *bhruHg-ie/o- v. 'to use'. Walde defines frūmentum only in general terms as 'Getreide', PIE. 'cereal, grain'. Elsewhere (DH, TLF) it is suggested that Lat. frūmentum had the specific sense of 'wheat' as well as the more general 'cereal, grain'.
Michiel de Vaan. "fruor" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other …
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *kuei-t- 'shining, white'

PGm. *hwaitja- m. ‘wheat’ < PGm.*hwīta-, *hwitta- adj. 'white' < PIE. *ḱu(e)it-nó- (GK).
Guus Kroonen. "hwīta- ~ *hwitta-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. August 2, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl.ludwig.lub.lu.se/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=21586 >
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European grease-5

Lat. sēbum n. ‘hard animal fat, tallow’ (GK). No etymology: "attested too early to be a loan from Germanic. WH and IEW suggest that it and Germanic *saip- 'soap' may reflect a common etymon. LIV reconstructs a root *seib- v. 'to drip', but *-b- is extremely rare in PIE, and the meaning of sēbum is not necessarily connected with v. 'to drip'." (GK)
Michiel de Vaan. "sēbum" in: Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited …
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European grease-4

PGm. *rusila- m. 'fat'. "Etymology: cf. the derivationally more primitive ON hold-rosa, Nw. kjøt-rose f. 'fleshy side of a hide' < *rusōn- as well as Sw. rösen 'paunch-fat' < *rusina-(?) and OE rǣge-rēose f. 'spinal muscles' < *-reusōn-. Presumably related to Nw. rysja wv. 'to flay' < *rusjan-" (GK)
Guus Kroonen. "rusila-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. June 14, 2014. < http:…
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *loih₁-, *lh₁oi-

PSl. *lȏjь m. 'tallow, suet' < PIE. *loih₁-, *lh₁oi-
Rick Derksen. "lȏjь" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. June 14, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=19312 >
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *smel-d-, *h₂meld- (?) 'melt'

PGm. *smalta-, *smulta- n. '(molten) fat, lard' < *smeltan- v. 'to melt' (GK) Icel. smolt n. 'id.', Nw. smolt n. 'id.', OE. smolt n. 'id.', MDu. smout n. 'id.', OHG. smalz n. 'id.', G. Schmalz n. 'id.'
Guus Kroonen. "smalta- ~ *smulta-" in: Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. June 14, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=22451 >
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European barley-4

PSl. *ęčьmy m. ‘barley’. Further etymology uncertain: "usually linked to *ǫk- 'bend' (*ǫkotь), which must be reconstructed as *h₂e/onk-" (RD).
Rick Derksen. "ęčьmy" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. August 4, 2014. < http://iedo.brillonline.nl.ludwig.lub.lu.se/dictionaries/lemma.html?id=18826 >
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Eurasia Persian ǰow

barley

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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *yewo-

Skt. yava- < PIE. *yewo-
CDB
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European barley-3

Greek, Albanian and Armenian items < *ghr̥yo- (HKM): "In view of formal difficulties, one may assume a Mediterranean substratum word: a 'Wanderwort' of Aegean origin" (HKM). Note also Basque gari 'wheat', garagar 'barley' and Georian & Megrelian kheri 'barley'.
1. Hrach K. Martirosyan. "gari" in: Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky. Brill, 2014. Brill Online. August 4, 2014. < http://iedo.brillo…
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Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *bheh₂u-, *bheuh₂- 'grow, arise, be'

PGm. *bewwa- n. ‘yield; barley’ < proto-form. *bheuh₂-o- (GK). An a-stem related to PGm. *bōan-, *būan- (GK): "from the root of ON būa v. 'to till, to dwell', Goth. bauan v. 'to dwell', etc. Hence originally 'the cultivated crop' and then specialised to 'barley' " (CDB). Cognates beyond Germanic: Skt. bhávati v. 'to become, happen, come about', OAv. bauuaiti 3sg.pres. v. 'to become' < * bhéuh₂-e-; Gr. φύομαι v. 'to grow, arise, spring up, become', Lith. bū́ti, Latv. bût v. 'to be', OCS byti, R… Details
Eurasia Proto-Celtic *barageno/ā, *barago/ā

(barley) bread

A nominalized adjective, originally meaning 'of flour' (RM). Details
Eurasia Stub Culture Indo-European PIE. *bhleh₃- 'blossom, flower'

1. PCelt. *blātu- ‘flower’ < PIE. *bhleh₃-tu- 'blossoming' < *bhleh₃- 'blossom, flower' // 2. Lat. flōs / 3. OHG bluot / / Fr. blé m.'wheat; (pop., attested C20) money' < OFr. blet, blé, blef, blave 'cereal, grain; a kind of cereal, probably wheat; by extension, other cereals' <- OFrk. *blād 'produce of the land' (TLF). In TLF’s terms “De l'a.b.frq. *blād « produit de la terre » que l'on peut déduire du m.néerl. blat « récolte, produit de la récolte; jouissance d'un capital » et de l'ags. bl… Details

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