Non-Indo-European; further etymology unknown. "A post-IE word, possibly a Wanderwort or a relic from the agricultural cultures that covered Europe before the arrival of the Indo-Europeans. This non-IE origin is betrayed by the many formal irregularities displayed by the different IE languages, which makes it impossible to reconstruct a single proto-form" (GK). "This cannot be a regular PIE word: Latin, Baltic and OHG ruoba require *aH, Slavic has /ē/, and Greek single -a-. There is no prothetic vowel in Greek, and the vacillation between π and φ also suggests a loanword" (MDV). "Since the word is widespread only in Europe, and since it has variant forms, it cannot be an inherited word from PIE, but must have been borrowed instead, or otherwise belong to a substrate: cf. Lat. rāpum [n.], -a [f.], OHG ruoba [f.], Lith. rópė [f.], which all point to a pre-form *rāp-; beside these, we find OHG raba, CS rěpa, Ru. répa [f.], which point to *rēp- (cf. Machek Ling. Posn. 2 (1950): 158ff.). The Greek words, in turn, require *rap-, or raph-, respectively: ῥάπυς, ῥάφυς, ῥάφανος" (RB).
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